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Coupled modes of projected regional change in the Bering Sea from a dynamically downscaling model under CMIP6 forcing

Three different global earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) were used to explore anticipated changes in the Bering Sea under high (SSP126) and low (SSP585) carbon mitigation scenarios (i.e. low and high emission scenarios), via dynamical downscaling. A multivariate pattern analysis, based on Empirical Orthogonal Functions applied to monthly time series, reveals strong coupling of changes across several biophysical variables and the global forcing itself, on both yearly and multidecadal time scales. Rising air and ocean temperatures from the global models are strongly coupled with rising regional temperatures and reduced ice cover/thickness, as well as strong changes to the phenology of the plankton food chain, including reduced biomass of large zooplankton in the fall. This method ultimately provides a compact way to estimate the changes to many regional attributes under a variety of global change scenarios. Application of this method to a broad ensemble of the CMIP6 global model air temperatures suggests that compared to present conditions, the Bering Sea shelf bottom temperatures in July will warm by an average of ?4 degrees C by the end of the 21st century under SSP585, as compared with ?1 degrees C under SSP126, with greatest warming focused on the outer northern shelf.

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